The great importance of Jum'ah salah (for men)

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Amongst the prescriptions of Islam, salaah is the most important injunction for muslims. Five times daily salaah are the protection and sign of faith of muslims.

On Fridays specifically, Allah Ta`ala has prescribed a special congregational salaah that becomes the most important salaah of the week. Men should leave all their professional activities and should turn towards the call of Khutbah and the jum`ah salaah. Allah Ta`ala says: ‘’ O you who believe (Muslims)! When the call is proclaimed for the Salat (prayer) on the day of Friday (Jumu’ah prayer), come to the remembrance of Allah(Khutbah) and Salaah (prayer) and leave off business (and every other thing), that is better for you if you did but know!’’(62:9)

The spirit of Jum`ah is to assemble muslim men of a city simultaneously so as to collectively remember Allah Ta`ala, offer prayers and bring the equilibrium of leaving worldly activities at that specific time. It is obligatory on city-dweller men that are baaligh, healthy and non travellers to attend the Jum`ah and leave all his worldly or deeni activities.

The concept of Jami`a masjid is to assemble all muslims men in one masjid at Jum`ah time. This is a recommendation by Shariah, although all jum`ah salaahs of the city are accepted. In the times of the prophet SAW, even far villages that had no obligation of Jum`ah, they used to attend Jum`ah turn by turn(Bukhari).

NO JUM’AH SALAAH FOR WOMEN.

Reported in Bukhari where imaam Bukhari wrote a Chapter especially to say that there is no Jum`ah salaah for women. He writes: ”Is there ghusl on the ones who do not attend Jum`ah from the women…”

بَاب هَلْ عَلَى مَنْ لَمْ يَشْهَدْ الْجُمُعَةَ غُسْلٌ مِنْ النِّسَاءِ وَالصِّبْيَانِ وَغَيْرِهِمْ وَقَالَ ابْنُ عُمَرَ إِنَّمَا الْغُسْلُ عَلَى مَنْ تَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ الْجُمُعَةُ

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ عَنْ مَالِكٍ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ سُلَيْمٍ عَنْ عَطَاءِ بْنِ يَسَارٍ عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ غُسْلُ يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ وَاجِبٌ عَلَى كُلِّ مُحْتَلِمٍ

Under this chapter he brought the riwayah as proof that Jum`ah is applied only to the one who has Ihtilaam. Ihtilaam is an Arabic term used only for man or a boy. Not a girl or a women. Ihtilaam is the ejaculation during wet dream of a boy or a man. Furthermore it is reported in Abu Dawood(and supported by Ibn Hibbaan) that Umme Atiyyah said about the beloved prophet SAW came to them to address them on their obligation. Therein she mentions that ”There is no Jum`ah on us and we have been prohibited to follow a Janazah.”(Abu Dawood, Sahih Ibn Hibbaan, Baihaqi, Shu`abul Imaan) Also a clear hadith from Abu Dawood where reported that women are excepted from Jum`ah. In fact there is concensus of Ulamas that there is no Jum`ah salaah for women. Imaam Bukhari brought the hadith of Hazrat Usman r.a. leaving his wife at home to hasten towards the Khutbah.

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَسْمَاءَ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا جُوَيْرِيَةُ بْنُ أَسْمَاءَ عَنْ مَالِكٍ عَنْ الزُّهْرِيِّ عَنْ سَالِمِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ عَنْ ابْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ بَيْنَمَا هُوَ قَائِمٌ فِي الْخُطْبَةِ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ إِذْ دَخَلَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ الْأَوَّلِينَ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَنَادَاهُ عُمَرُ أَيَّةُ سَاعَةٍ هَذِهِ قَالَ إِنِّي شُغِلْتُ فَلَمْ أَنْقَلِبْ إِلَى أَهْلِي حَتَّى سَمِعْتُ التَّأْذِينَ فَلَمْ أَزِدْ أَنْ تَوَضَّأْتُ فَقَالَ وَالْوُضُوءُ أَيْضًا وَقَدْ عَلِمْتَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَانَ يَأْمُرُ بِالْغُسْلِ

Hazrat Umar r.a. addressed to Usman r.a.: ‘Why are you late?’ He replied that I only went to my family when I heard the azaan and hence I came hasting, doing only wouzu.(Bukhari)

It is clear that hazrat Usman r.a. left his wife at home. Reported from Tabrani and Baihaqi that Hazrat Ibn Mas`ood r.a. used to take out women from the masjid and told them: Go home! Pray 4 rakaats at home.’’ Ibn Munzir tells us that there is ijma`(everybody agrees without different opinions) that there is no Jum`ah on women:

أجمعوا على أن لا جمعة على النساء.

Based on ahadiths of Bukhari, the actions of sahabahs and ijma` of the ummah, we conclude that there is no Jum`ah salaah for women. They should read individually their 4 rakaats of Zohr as usual.

SUNNAH MUAKKADAH:

It is important that we offer sunnah muakkadah salaahs without fail. You should know that the Sunnate Muakkadah salaats are important and it is a sin to neglect them. The Muakkadah around Jum’ah salaah consist of four before the Khutbah, four after the Jum’ah salaat and finally two. The prophet Muhammad (saw) said: “Whomsoever made ghusl on a Friday…..and he walked and (while sitting) did not separate two people and he prayed what was destined for him and when the Imaam came(for khutbah) , he remained silent, his sins until next Friday will be forgiven.” (Sahih Bukhari)

حدثنا عبدان قال أخبرنا عبد الله قال أخبرنا بن أبي ذئب عن سعيد المقبري عن أبيه عن بن وديعة عن سلمان الفارسي قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من اغتسل يوم الجمعة وتطهر بما استطاع من طهر ثم ادهن أو مس من طيب ثم راح فلم يفرق بين اثنين فصلى ما كتب له ثم إذا خرج الإمام أنصت غفر له ما بينه وبين الجمعة الأخرى صحيح البخاري

The Sunnate Muakkadah is essential since the word ‘kutiba’ was being used. This vocab denotes compulsion. Thus without the sunnate muakkadah, we cannot achieve the virtues of Jum’ah.

BRIEF OUTLINE OF THE ARTICLE:

1. Proofs that khutbah is wajib to listen.
2. Proof that khutbah is recommended to be shorter than salaah.
3. Proofs that Jum’ah Khutbah should ONLY BE IN ARABIC.
4. No salaahs or zikr allowed during khutbahs.

The difference between Zuhr and Jum’ah is that before the Jum’ah salaaH, it is waajib (compulsory) to deliver the Khutbah. In fact, the Khutbah is a condition for Jum’ah to be valid. For this reason it is waajib (compulsory) to listen to the Khutbah, even if we do not understand Arabic. Know that it is haraam for men to indulge in any activity from azaan of khutbah till end of jum`ah salaah. Please refer to ayah 9 of sourah 62. Hence if away from the masjid, then one should walk towards the khutbah and towards the masjid. If in the masjid, then one should not be in any activity like salaah or zikr, but should be attentive and respectful towards the Arabic khutbah.

THE ORDINANCE OF JUM`AH KHUTBAH.

In fact the Khutbah of Jum’ah is different from all the other bayaans (lectures), by its divine order and because it is stipulated on a specific time. Allah Ta’ala mentions in the Qur’aan: “O you who believe! When the call is proclaimed for the salaah on Friday, come to the remembrance of Allah and leave business. That is better for you if you did but know.” (62:9)

Moreover the Khutbah should be conducted in a specific posture-standing on the mimbar. The Qur’aan testifies: “They disperse headlong to it, and leave you (Muhammad saw) standing.” (62:11)

On Fridays, the Sahabas (companions of Nabi (saw)) were commanded to align themselves in ‘saffs’ (in line) and not to form a ‘halqah’ (circle) and note that this applies specifically on the day of Jum’ah:”….Nabi sallallaahou ‘alaihi wa sallam prohibited from forming a ‘halqah’ before salaah on the day of Jum’ah.” (Abu Dawood)

حدثنا مسدد ثنا يحيى عن بن عجلان عن عمرو بن شعيب عن أبيه عن جده أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم نهى عن الشراء والبيع في المسجد وأن تنشد فيه ضالة وأن ينشد فيه شعر ونهى عن التحلق قبل الصلاة يوم الجمعة سنن أبي داود

And during the Khutbah, the Sahabas use to only turn their faces towards the ‘Khateeb’ (the one conducting the sermon). Here it’s a ‘sunnah’ that we should follow, that during the Khutbah of Jum’ah, to sit while facing the Qiblah, but the face turned towards the ‘Khateeb’ (the one who delivers the Khutbah)-Tirmizi.

عن علقمة عن عبد الله بن مسعود قال كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إذا استوى على المنبر استقبلناه بوجوهنا سنن الترمذي

Thus, this greatly differentiates the Jum’ah Khutbah and the other bayaans in which the Prophet (saw) used to advise to form a circle around him. There are many narrations regarding this subject including a hadith which we quote from Sahih Bukhari:

فرأى فرجة في الحلقة فجلس فيها صحيح البخاري

“He saw an empty space in the ‘halqah’ (circle) and sat there.”

Do you not see that after the Azaan of Jum’ah, it is not permissible to involve one self in other material activities, but it is compulsory to turn towards the Khutbah? This injunction applies specifically to the time of the Jum’ah Khutbah, and not other ‘bayaans’ (lectures) that the Prophet used to deliver after other salaats.

In fact the hadith of Abu Dawood imposes one who cannot hear the Khateeb, because of the distance, to listen attentively while seated and to remain silent.

حدثنا إبراهيم بن موسى أخبرنا عيسى ثنا عبد الرحمن بن يزيد بن جابر قال حدثني عطاء الخرساني عن مولى امرأته أم عثمان قال سمعت عليا رضي الله عنه على منبر الكوفة يقول إذا كان يوم الجمعة غدت الشياطين براياتها إلى الأسواق فيرمون الناس بالترابيث أو الربائث ويثبطونهم عن الجمعة وتغدو الملائكة فيجلسون على أبواب المسجد فيكتبون الرجل من ساعة والرجل من ساعتين حتى يخرج الإمام فإذا جلس الرجل مجلسا يستمكن فيه من الاستماع والنظر فأنصت ولم يلغ كان له كفلان من أجر فإن نأى وجلس حيث لا يسمع فأنصت ولم يلغ كان له كفل من أجر وإن جلس مجلسا يستمكن فيه منالاستماع والنظر فلغا ولم ينصت كان له كفل من وزر ومن قال يوم الجمعة لصاحبه صه فقد لغا ومن لغا فليس له في جمعته تلك شيء ثم يقول في آخر ذلك سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول ذلك قال أبو داود رواه الوليد بن مسلم عن بن جابر قال بالربائث وقال مولى امرأته أم عثمان بن عطاء سنن أبي داود

“….and he sat in a place where he could not hear (the Khutbah). He remained silent and did not act immorally…..” (Abu Dawood)

This shows that even if we cannot hear the Khutbah, we should still display the same respect as if we listening are to it. Thus the understanding of the Khutbah is not essential in order to respect it. Hence imposing on the importance of making the people understand the Khutbah by delivering the Khutbah in a language other than Arabic is not proven from any source.

In fact, even if we do not understand or hear the Khutbah, respect should still be given to the Khutbah: by remaining silent and attentive. Thus, to deliver it in other languages besides Arabic is not proven. There is no such narration found which could show that the Sahabas used to deliver the Khutbah in a language other than Arabic.

Ammar bin Yasir (ra) narrates that the Prophet Muhammad (saw) ordered us to shorten the Jum’ah Khutbah and make the jum`ah salaah longer than the khutbah. (Abu Dawood, Musannaf ibn abi Shaibah)

عن أبى وائل قال خطبنا عمار بن ياسر فقلنا يا أبا اليقظان لقد أبلغت و أوجزت فقال أنى سمعت رسول الله صلعم يقول إن طول الصلاة و قصر الخطبة مئنة من فقه الرجل فأطيلوا الصلاة و أقصروا الخطبة المستدرك على الصحيحين

Hadhrat Abu Waa-il (ra) narrates that he heard the Prophet Muhammad (saw) saying:” To prolong salaah and to shorten the Khutbah is in fact a sign of knowledge of the religious science in that person. Prolong salaah and shorten the Khutbah.” (Mustadrak)

In a narration of Mustadrak, Jabir (ra) narrates that the Prophet Muhammad (saw) never used to prolong the Jum’ah Khutbah and that the Khutbah comprised of a few simple words:

حدثني جعفر بن محمد بن الحارث ثنا جعفر بن محمد الفريابي ثنا محمود بن خالد الدمشقي ثنا الوليد بن مسلم أخبرني شيبان أبو معاوية عن سماك بن حرب عن جابر بن سمرة قال كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لا يطيل الموعظة يوم الجمعة إنما هن كلمات يسيرات المستدرك على الصحيحين

This shows that Khutbah is different from normal ‘bayaans’. To deliver the Jum’ah Khutbah in French or English(other than Arabic) or longer than the salaah, is not compatible to ‘Sunnah’. The Prophet of Allah (saw) mentioned:”Prolong salaah and shorten the Khutbah.” (Sahih Muslim)

حدثني سريج بن يونس حدثنا عبد الرحمن بن عبد الملك بن أبجر عن أبيه عن واصل بن حيان قال قال أبو وائل خطبنا عمار فأوجز وأبلغ فلما نزل قلنا يا أبا اليقظان لقد أبلغت وأوجزت فلو كنت تنفست فقال إني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول إن طول صلاة الرجل وقصر خطبته مئنة من فقهه فأطيلوا الصلاة واقصروا الخطبة وإن من البيان سحرا صحيح مسلم

The Sahabas went to Kabul, China, Africa and Europe and they did not deliver the Jum’ah Khutbah in other languages besides Arabic. Same like salaat and azaan, the Khutbah should be delivered in Arabic. In fact the Qur’aan mentions it in the same aayat: “O you who believe! When the call is proclaimed for the salaah on Friday, come to the remembrance of Allah and leave business, that is better for you if you did but know!” (63:9)

This verse brings the ulamas unanimous upon the specific compulsion of the Khutbah of Jum`ah. This shows that, whom soever arrives after the Azaan of Jum’ah there names would not be written down in the register by the angels. Thus, it is not permissible to bring about changes in an obligation which is so important like the Khutbah of Jum’ah. In fact, a simple gesture may nullify the reward of Jum’ah. The Prophet Muhammad (saw) said: “One who touches (played with) a pebble, has misbehaved.” (Sahih Muslim)

و من مس الحصى فقد لغا

If a small act of touching or playing with pebbles during the Khutbah may nullify the reward of Jum’ah, how audacious are we to alter the nature of the Khutbah from Arabic to other languages! Since there is no foundation or any narration of the Sahabas for implementing this change, it is very imprudent to initiate this modification because it entails the risk of nullifying the rewards of Jum’ah.

In fact, if we want to make people understand some Islamic subjects, we can do it before the azaan of Khutbah, standing next to the mimbar. This is what Abu Hurairah (ra) used to do before the Imaam would come out for Khutbah. Thus the ‘bayaans’ (lectures) in French, English or Creole, before the Khutbah is under the Sunnah of the Khulafa-e-Rashideen. These ‘bayaans’ do not have the same significance as the Khutbah and in this way they can be done in English or any other languages besides Arabic.

حدثنا عاصم بن محمد بن زيد عن أبيه قال كان أبو هريرة يقوم يوم الجمعة إلى جانب المنبر فيطرح أعقاب نعليه فى ذراعيه ثم يقبض على رمانة المنبر يقول قال أبو القاسم صلى عليه و سلم قال محمد صلعم قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال الصادق المصدوق صلى الله عليه و سلم ثم يقول فى بعض ذلك ويل للعرب من شر قد اقترب فإذا حركة باب المقصورة بخروج الإمام جلس هذا حديث صحيح على شرط الشيخين و لم يخرجاه هكذا و ليس الغرض فى تصحيح حديث ويل للعرب من شر قد اقترب فقد أخرجاه إنما اللغرض فيه استحباب رواية الحديث على المنبر قبل خروج الإمام المستدرك على الصحيحين

“Abu Hurairah (ra) had the habit of standing next to the mimbar on the day of Jum’ah. He would hold his shoes by his elbows and would hold the side of the mimbar by saying Abul Qasim (saw) said…., Muhammad (saw) said…..And when he would hear the squeaking of the door (informing him a bout the) coming of the Imaam, he would then sit down immediately.” ( Mustadrak ‘alas saheehain)

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