*CONTEXTS OF VERSES RELATED TO FIGHTING.*First of all, know that every nation/country needs to set up its military for war purposes. The country need self defence or to sometimes do offensive operations for a specific reason. Well, the to be Islamic empire had the need for its military operations as any other empire.The difference of Islam with other religions, is that every step of the day to day life should be outsourced from religious texts. In the beginning of Islam, the religion prescribed a passive attitude in return to oppressions. This attitude was inspired by a revelation from God that we should live passively, not retaliating the oppressor and not repulsing the criminal islamophia that was prevailing in Makkah then.
أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ قِيلَ لَهُمْ كُفُّوا أَيْدِيَكُمْ وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ [النساء : 77]
‘’Don`t you see those who when they were told ‘’hold your hands(from fighting) and establish salaah and give Zakaah?’’(4:77)The beloved prophet Swalallahou `Alaihi Wasallam expressed gentleness and good character in exchange of the brutal oppressions of the polytheist Makkans. The scene of(may Allah protect us) mokery, sending sand over the prophet, spitting over the prophet`s face, beatings, pelting him was exchanged with silence, no retaliation and duas of forgiveness for those oppressors. The answer of the brutal islamophobia was the gentle sunnah character.The muslim family of Yaasir r.a. suffered a lot because they had no one to defend them. Once the beloved prophet Muhammad Swalallahou `Alaihi Wasallam was walking by and saw the whole family of Yaasir r.a. was tortured, he told them ‘’Patience O family of Yaasir! You will have Paradise.’’(Tabrani) The mother of Yaasir r.a., Sumayyah r.a., was murdered by Abu Jahl in a very torturing manner. Crime and torture were deliberately done to the muslims.حياة الصحابة – الكاندهلوي – ()أخرج الطبراني، والحاكم، والبيهقي، وابن عساكر عن جابر رضي الله عنه أنّ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم مرَّ بعمَّار وأهله وهم يعذَّبون، فقال: «أبشروا آل ياسر فإنَّ موعدكم الجنة». قال الهيثمي : رجال الطبراني رجال الصحيح غير إبراهيم بن عبد العزيز المقوّم وهو ثقة ا هـ.وعند الحاكم في الكُنَى وابن عساكر عن عثمان رضي الله عنه قال: بينما أنا أمشي مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بالبطحاء إِذ بعمّار وأبيه وأمه يعذبون في الشمس ليرتدّوا عن الإِسلام. فقال أبو عمّار. يا رسول الله، الدهرَ هكذا؟ فقال: «صبراً يا آل ياسر. اللَّهمَّ إغفر لآل ياسر، وقد فعلت». وأخرجه أيضاً أحمدThe passive concept of the beginning of Islam saw a boycott of 3 years upon muslims without any revenge or retaliation. Note that pacifist and non violent Islam prevails in an environment where there was no adequate set up of muslim government with all its amenities.صحيح البخاري – ()سلمة عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قالقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم من الغد يوم النحر وهو بمنى نحن نازلون غدا بخيف بني كنانة حيث تقاسموا على الكفر يعني ذلك المحصب وذلك أن قريشا وكنانة تحالفت على بني هاشم وبني عبد المطلب أو بني المطلب أن لا يناكحوهم ولا يبايعوهم حتى يسلموا إليهم النبي صلى الله عليه وسلمReported that the 3 years boycott was on food, finance and social interaction. Many men, women and children suffered famine during those 3 years. In fact, muslims and all their families who support them would be outcasted in that boycott.During those difficult years in Makkah, the muslims suffered a lot. Reported in Bukhari that once Khabaab r.a. told Rasouloullah Swalallahou Alaihi Wasallam :’’Why don`t you ask help from Allah for us? Why don`t you make du`a for us?’’ The prophet Swalallahou `Alaihi Wasallam said that there were muslims before you that were persecuted to death but still they would not renounce Islam. And this Islam will bring such peace that a traveller would travel from Sanaa(Yemen) to HadraMaout without any fear from anyone except Allah or not fearing the wolf over his sheep. *”But you(O my companions in Makkah)are wanting things too much in a hurry.”*صحيح البخاري – ()عن إسماعيل حدثنا قيس عن خباب بن الأرت قالشكونا إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وهو متوسد بردة له في ظل الكعبة قلنا له ألا تستنصر لنا ألا تدعو الله لنا قال كان الرجل فيمن قبلكم يحفر له في الأرض فيجعل فيه فيجاء بالمنشار فيوضع على رأسه فيشق باثنتين وما يصده ذلك عن دينه ويمشط بأمشاط الحديد ما دون لحمه من عظم أو عصب وما يصده ذلك عن دينه والله ليتمن هذا الأمر حتى يسير الراكب من صنعاء إلى حضرموت لا يخاف إلا الله أو الذئب على غنمه ولكنكم تستعجلون Patience, prayer, pacifism, non violence and non defencive or non offencive were the Islamic prescriptions in Makkah.The prophet Muhammad SAW did not make emigration until it was revealed to him to turn back to Makkah and go Madinah. That is why for every circumstance, there was specific revelation.After the Hijrah/emigration, when the government of muslims was established, the prophet first signed peace treaties with the Christians and Jews in Madinah. And he also made peace treaties to those tribes around Madinah. Islam is not a war monger religion. The world should know that.But since the prophet Muhammad peace be upon him is a blessings for the whole world, so there should be a pathway for that. During that era, after completing 13 years of mission around Makkah, then there was a need to purify Makkah from the oppressors of Islam. Because Makkah is the most holy city on planet earth. But the prophet cannot advance on such initiative without revelation. It is then that we read those verses revealed calling for war and oppose physically those who brutally persecuted muslims. After inviting them peaceably to accept Islam, if they refused, then stand and oppose those who are standing in the way of the enlightenment of a worldly peaceful religion that would benefit the whole mankind-Al Islam.Mufti Mackoojee