The Sunnahs around the day of ASHOURA(10th of Muharram)1442

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Bismihi Ta`ala

*THE SUNNAHS AROUND THE DAY OF ASHOURA(10th of Muharram)1441.*

The 10th day of Muharram is a special day when Hazrat Moussa a.s. and his people were delivered by Allah Ta`ala. In shukr and being thankful to Allah Ta`ala Hazrat Moussa a.s. and his people used to fast on that day.


عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ
قَدِمَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ الْمَدِينَةَ فَوَجَدَ الْيَهُودَ صُيَّامًا فَقَالَ مَا هَذَا قَالُوا هَذَا يَوْمٌ أَنْجَى اللَّهُ فِيهِ مُوسَى وَأَغْرَقَ فِيهِ فِرْعَوْنَ فَصَامَهُ مُوسَى شُكْرًا فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ نَحْنُ أَحَقُّ بِمُوسَى مِنْكُمْ فَصَامَهُ وَأَمَرَ بِصِيَامِهِ
ابن ماجة

Reported in Ibn Majah that when the beloved prophet SAW came to Madinah, he found the jews keeping fast on the 10th day of Muharram. He enquired about the reason of their fasts. They answered: On that day, Allah saved Moussa a.s. by drowning Pharaoh. So Hazrat Moussa a.s. used to keep this fast in gratitude to this favour. So the beloved prophet SAW said: ‘’We are closer to Moussa than the jews.’’ So the beloved prophet SAW kept fast on the 10th of Muharram and recommended fasting that day. (Sahih Ibn Majah)
Also reported that on 10th Muharram, Hazrat Adam a.s. was forgiven(Ibn Abdur Razaq), and on that date the Arc of Nuh a.s. came to stop at mountain Judi of Turkey after the world flooded(Ahmad). And also it was 10th Muharram when the magicians of Pharaon became Muslims in front of the Egyptian public.(Ibn Katheer and other Tafseers).

*VIRTUE*

وَصِيَامُ يَوْمِ عَاشُورَاءَ أَحْتَسِبُ عَلَى اللَّهِ أَنْ يُكَفِّرَ السَّنَةَ الَّتِي قَبْلَهُ
مسلم
The beloved prophet SAW said: ‘’…And about the fast of Ashoura, I hope that Allah Ta`ala will erase the sins of last year.’’(Muslim)
Since a muslim always do tawbah and istighfaar, so one can have one whole year`s ibaadah. Or else have last year`s sins forgiven. Although major sins require tawbah, the hadith refers to minor sins. Although the full grace of Allah can erase major sins also.

Fasting 9th and 10th is better than 10th and 11th.
Although it is recommended to fast the whole month of Muharram, but the most important day remains the 10th Day(Ashoura). But because the jews used to keep fast on 10th only, then the beloved prophet SAW told us to perform differently and keep also one fast before the 10th and one fast after the 10th. That is either 9th and 10th or 10th and 11th.(Musannaf Abdur Razzaq)

وأخرج ابن عدي والبيهقي عن ابن عباس قال : قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : « صوموا يوم عاشوراء ، وخالفوا فيه اليهود . صوموا قبله يوماً وبعده يوماً »
مصنف عبد الرزاق


But because the last advice that we find on this issue is that the beloved prophet SAW wished that if he had stayed alive next year, then he would have kept the 9th Muharram as fast together with 10th.(Muslim, Tirmizi)

سَمِعْتُ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا يَقُولُا
حِينَ صَامَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ وَأَمَرَ بِصِيَامِهِ قَالُوا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّهُ يَوْمٌ تُعَظِّمُهُ الْيَهُودُ وَالنَّصَارَى فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَإِذَا كَانَ الْعَامُ الْمُقْبِلُ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ صُمْنَا الْيَوْمَ التَّاسِعَ قَالَ فَلَمْ يَأْتِ الْعَامُ الْمُقْبِلُ حَتَّى تُوُفِّيَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ
مسلم

عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ أَنَّهُ قَالَ صُومُوا التَّاسِعَ وَالْعَاشِرَ وَخَالِفُوا الْيَهُودَ
ترمذي
Ibn Abbaas r.a. said referring to words of Rasouloullah saw: Keep fast on 9th and 10th to differentiate from jews.”(Tirmizi).

*So keeping on 9th Muharram and 10th Muhurram is better that keeping fast on 10th and 11th. Although permissible to keep all 3 days as fasts. And Makrooh tanzihi(detestable) to keep fast only on 10th Muharram(Fatawa Shami).*
والمكروه …تنزيها كعاشوراء وحده

*Spend more on your family on 10th Muharram.*
It is reported by a sahih hadith that the beloved prophet SAW said: ‘’The one who spend more on his family on the day of Ashoura, then Allah will increase his revenue throughout the whole year.’’(Baihaqi)
وأخرج البيهقي عن جابر قال : قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : « من وسع على أهله يوم عاشوراء وسع الله عليه طول سنته »
This riwayah is narrated by four famous sahabas:  Ibn Mas`ood, Abu Hureirah, Jabir and Abu Sa`eed Khudri r.a. And Hazrat Jabir r.a. said that ‘’I have experienced the increase of revenue throughout the year when I spent more on my family on 10th of Muharram.’’(Ibn Hajar)  These Tabi`ees are reported to have experienced the truthfulness of this hadith: Soufyaan Thowri, Abu Zubeir, Sho`bah, Yahya Ibn Sa`eed et Ibn `Uyainah r.a. (Sharhe Bukhari : Ibn Bataal).
Allama Shami said that this hadith is sahih. And he described the spending on family can be in any ways: food, clothing and besides that also.

أَنَّهُ لَا يُقْتَصَرُ فِيهِ عَلَى التَّوْسِعَةِ بِنَوْعٍ وَاحِدٍ بَلْ يَعُمُّهَا فِي الْمَآكِلِ وَالْمَلَابِسِ وَغَيْرِ ذَلِكَ  
شامي

So one may spend on the family in any kind, but should not go out of one`s means or to take debts for that. Note that Sahabah and Tabi`ees have found the hadith correct since they personally experienced it.
Note that Hashitut Tahtawi Ala Maraqiyul Falah and Inayah `ala sharhil Hidayah both said that he riwayah is ok and not mawdou`. Fatawa Azhar also accepted the hadith. And Allamah Haitami confirm that the hadith is Sahih in his fatawa:

وَقِيلَ إنَّهُ مَنْسُوبٌ لِنَبِيِّنَا وَعَاشُورَاء مَنْسُوبٌ لِمُوسَى صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمَا وَسَلَّمَ وَوَرَدَ مِنْ طُرُقٍ صَحَّحَ بَعْ
ضَهَا بَعْضُ الْحُفَّاظِ خِلَافًا لِمَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّهَا مَوْضُوعَةٌ { مَنْ وَسَّعَ عَلَى عِيَالِهِ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ وَسَّعَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ السَّنَةَ كُلَّهَا }
هيثمي

Note that Ibn Jawzi made a mistake to qualify the hadith as mawdou` as mentioned in Tuhfatul Muhtaaj bisharhil minhaaj-lil Haitami. And Allamah Qari Mulla described the riwayah as sahih as a hadith of Muslim shareef.(Sharhe Mishkaat):
ونقل ميرك عن المنذري في الترغيب أن هذا الحديث رواه البيهقي من طرق وعن جماعة من الصحابة وقال هذه الأسانيد وإن كانت ضعيفة فهي إذا ضم بعضها إلى بعض أحدثت قوة اه قال العراقي له طرق صحح بعضها وبعضها على شرط مسلم
شرح مشكوة

So fasts and spending more on family are the prescriptions of Ashoura. Hence ignore all other practices such as specific salaahs, giving sweets, etc as they are all inventions.

Mufti Mackoojee
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