Reward v/s Actual Accomplishment.

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Bismihi Ta`ala

Reward v/s Actual Accomplishment.

In shariah, you will see lots actions that give reward to a certain accomplishments, but that does not mean that you don`t need to fulfil these accomplishments.

For example, it is incorrect to say that when reading salaah in Makkah or Madinah suffice to fill the missed salaahs during your lifetime/Qaza Umri. Or reading 3 times Surah Ikhlaas would suffice for having read the whole Quraan. Sahabahs having the knowledge of virtue of surah ikhlaas used to set at least a parah daily for Quran Hizb.

Although these rewards are recorded in your deed book, but one has to stand up and accomplish whatever actions required and necessary according to shariah.

The proof on that is the following hadith of Bukhari:

صحيح البخاري – (6 / 410)

حدثنا عبدان أخبرنا يزيد بن زريع أخبرنا حبيب المعلم عن عطاء عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال

لما رجع النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم من حجته قال لأم سنان الأنصارية ما منعك من الحج قالت أبو فلان تعني زوجها كان له ناضحان حج على أحدهما والآخر يسقي أرضا لنا قال فإن عمرة في رمضان تقضي حجة أو حجة معي

After Hajjatul Wada`, Rasouloullah Swalallahou `Alaihi Wasallam called Umme Sinaan ra and asked her :’’What prevented you from coming in Hajj with us?’’. She explained that they had only 2 camels and one her husband took for him in Hajj and she had to water the crop with the other. So Rasouloullah Swalallahou `Alaihi Wasallam told her:’’Do a Umrah in Ramadhaan will equal to a Hajj with Me.’’(Sahih Bukhari)

The student of Imaam Bukhari ra, Imaam Tirmizi ra brought the comments of Ishaaq ra on this Hadith saying that this is only a reward and cannot be accounted for accomplishment of a Hajj. He mentioned the same example of reading Surah Ikhlaas for reward of reading one third of Quraan.

سنن الترمذي) 

قَالَ إِسْحَقُ مَعْنَى هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ مِثْلُ مَا رُوِيَ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنَّهُ قَالَ مَنْ قَرَأَ قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ فَقَدْ قَرَأَ ثُلُثَ الْقُرْآنِ

مرقاة المفاتيح شرح مشكاة المصابيح – القاري – (8 / 442)

وعن ابن عباس قال قال رسول الله إن عمرة في رمضان أي كائنة تعدل حجة أي تعادل وتماثل في الثواب

Hazrat Ibn Abaas ra says that the reward is comparable to such and such action only.(Sharhe Miskaat-Mulla Ali Qari ra)

As such, if someone has qaza salaahs, qaza rozas, missed Zakaat payments and Hajj farz on him, then he should absolutely make qaza of these salaahs, fasting, Zakaat and also attend for his compulsory Hajj. Because these are alike loans that should be accomplished and paid to Allah Ta`ala:

مسند أحمد ط الرسالة – (26 / 47)

حَدَّثَنَا جَرِيرٌ، عَنْ مَنْصُورٍ، عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ، عَنْ يُوسُفَ بْنِ الزُّبَيْرِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ الزُّبَيْرِ، قَالَ: جَاءَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ خَثْعَمٍ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، فَقَالَ: إِنَّ أَبِي أَدْرَكَهُ الْإِسْلَامُ، وَهُوَ شَيْخٌ كَبِيرٌ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُ رُكُوبَ الرَّحْلِ ، وَالْحَجُّ مَكْتُوبٌ عَلَيْهِ، أَفَأَحُجُّ عَنْهُ ؟ قَالَ: ” أَنْتَ أَكْبَرُ وَلَدِهِ ؟ ” قَالَ: نَعَمْ، قَالَ: ” أَرَأَيْتَ لَوْ كَانَ عَلَى أَبِيكَ دَيْنٌ فَقَضَيْتَهُ عَنْهُ، أَكَانَ ذَلِكَ يُجْزِئُ عَنْهُ ؟ ” قَالَ: نَعَمْ، قَالَ: ” فَاحْجُجْ عَنْهُ ” 

Reported in Musnad Ahmad that a sahabah asked Rasouloullah Swalallahou `Alaihi Wasallam about his father that Hajj became farz upon him and he cannot sit on a horse/camel due to old age. So Rasouloullah Swalallahou `Alaihi Wasallam asked him: ‘’Had your father be in debt with a loan. Wouldn`t you pay that debt off?’’ He replied: ‘’Yes’’. So Rasouloullah Swalallahou `Alaihi Wasallam told him: ‘’So, in the same way, do Hajj on his behalf’’.

Overhere, Rasouloullah Swalallahou `Alaihi Wasallam did not say to do a Umrah in Ramadhaan. But He emphasized the importance of the Hajj with someone else performing it for him. Hajj badal. So clear that one has to replace missed salaahs, fasts, zakaat and Hajj also.

Written in kitaabs that one cannot pay kaffarah of salaahs or fasting unless incapable to perform them due to sickness. Salaah incapacity is when bed ridden and cannot move head. If can make salaah by lying down and moving head, then cannot pay kaffarah to cover missed salaahs.

حاشية رد المحتار على الدر المختار (حاشية ابن عابدين) وتكملته – (5 / 413)

قَالَ فِي الْبَحْرِ : وَيَنْبَغِي أَنْ يُقَالَ مَحْمَلُهُ مَا إذَا لَمْ يَقْدِرْ فِي مَرَضِهِ عَلَى الْإِيمَاءِ بِالرَّأْسِ

Fasting incapacity when a pious muslim doctor advise so or health truely do not allow to keep fasts. So kaffarah will only be applied when truly incapable to perform these qazas.

A kaffarah for a salaah is the value of 1 Sadaqatul Fitr given to poor Zakaatable muslims. Witr included, 6 salaahs accounted daily. Kaffarah for fasting is 1 Sadaqatul Fitr given to poor Zakaatable muslims.  

Since these are loans that we owe Allah Ta`ala, then one should write a wasiyat or a will in the cases of kaffarahs and send someone to perform Hajj for him if compulsory Hajj never performed. The wasiyat/will will be applied for a maximum of 1/3 of his estate. Inheritors can concede to give away their rights of share of inheritance and apply the will/wasiyat fully on the value of the estate if they wish.

Mufti Mackoojee

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