For someone doing Hajj Tamattu` or Qiraan, Is the sequence Pelting, Qurbani and Shaving head wajib? Some says that it is not wajib and no dam required when we miss any sequence.Please clarify as you mentioned that there is a sequence to be followed. Also should we women cut 2 cms from all hairs or a few hair cut ok? Men should shave whole head or a few hairs shave ok?
Note: In the Hajj Qiraan and Tamattu`, Qurbani is wajib. While Ifraad, Qurbani not wajib. Qiraan is to perform Umrah and Hajj with one ihram. Tamattu` is to perform Umrah, then become halaal then reput ihram on 8th Zil Hajj for Hajj.
A) First of all know that Hajj is a collective ibadah that has been happening from the time even before the holy prophet SAW. But the holy prophet SAW confirmed the rites and hence enhanced the Hajj to the ummah. During Hajj, different group of people mixed together, including those who know the rites and those who don`t know. Our reference should be thus the fuqahas sahabas r.a. and not a single riwayah or hadith. The practice of Hajj is obvious and public and it is not difficult to observe them through centuries that went by.
Considering the sequence of Pelting, Slaughtering and Shaving/cutting the hairs, the ummah has always been following that sequence for centuries. The holy Qur-aan also give the same testimony that sequence of shaving head should be followed:
In Sourah Baqarah, verse 196, Allah Ta`ala said:
Si vous en êtes empêchés, alors faites un sacrifice qui vous soit facile. Et ne rasez pas vos têtes avant que l’offrande [l’animal à sacrifier] n’ait atteint son lieu d’immolation. Si l’un d’entre vous est malade ou souffre d’une affection de la tête (et doit se raser), qu’il se rachète alors par un Siyâm ou par une aumône ou par un sacrifice.
The Qur-aan is clear that sequence should be followed before removing ihram from Umrah. As for Hajj also, it is mentioned by Ibnul Humaam that sequence in Hajj also should be followed. And the verse give testimony to the fact that if ever head had been shaved before its sequence due to illness or lies(lipou), then one has to pay a dam. A dam is to slaughter a sheep or a goat in mina. Hence this is the Quranic ayah that strengthen the fact that we need to follow sequence in Hajj. And also if the sequence has been distorted, then a dam has to be made.
Secondly, the eminent sahaba Abdullah bin Mas`ood r.a., a close sahabi to the prophet SAW also gave fatwa on that the sequence of pelting, slaughtering and shaving is wajib.
It is reported under the authority of Tahawi that Hazrat Ibn Abaas r.a. said that the holy prophet SAW said: ”Whosoever altered the sequences in his Hajj, then he has to offer a dam(slaughter an animal in Mina).” Also reported in Musannaf ibn Abi Shaibah from Abdullah bin Mas`ood r.a. Also the inheritor of Fiqh of Abdullah bin Mas`ood is Imaam Abu Hanifah. He hold the view that sequence of pelting, Slaughtering and Shaving is wajib.
Nontheless, there are sahis ahadiths of Hajjatul Wida` that when people querried the holy prophet SAW about wrong sequences, the holy prophet SAW answered:”No problem!”. Thus some ulamas took this answer as a proof that nothing is obligatory in the sequence. But one cannot make a judgement on a few ahadiths only. But one should see the whole lot of Quranic ayahs and other ahadiths that would complete the picture of the Hajj of the holy prophet SAW. Let us see each puzzle and put them in its proper place to know the whole picture of Hajj of Rasouloullah SAW:
1. The Sequence of Rasouloullah SAW:
In fact the holy prophet SAW himself followed the sequence: Pelting, Slaughtering and then shaving the hea. It is accepted by one and all that the holy prophet SAW did this sequence in practice: Reported in Muslim shareef the Hajj of Rasouloullah SAW was made in this particular sequence:
عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ قَالَ لَمَّا رَمَى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ الْجَمْرَةَ وَنَحَرَ نُسُكَهُ وَحَلَقَ نَاوَلَ الْحَالِقَ شِقَّهُ الْأَيْمَنَ فَحَلَقَهُ ثُمَّ دَعَا أَبَا طَلْحَةَ الْأَنْصَارِيَّ فَأَعْطَاهُ إِيَّاهُ ثُمَّ نَاوَلَهُ الشِّقَّ الْأَيْسَرَ فَقَالَ احْلِقْ فَحَلَقَهُ فَأَعْطَاهُ أَبَا طَلْحَةَ فَقَالَ اقْسِمْهُ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ
Reported by Annas r.a. that when the holy prophet SAW pelted the Jamrah, he then slaughtered his animals and then he made the Hair Dresser to shave the right side of his head. Then he called Abu Talha to give him the hairs. Then he made the hair dresser to shave the left side of his head. He gave his hair to Abu Talha to distribute them between the sahabas.(Sahih Muslim)
Hence if we wish to follow the Hajj of the prophet SAW, we need to follow the prescribed sequence of Pelting, Slaughtering and Shaving.
2. The holy prophet SAW ordered sahabas to follow this sequence:
Those ahadiths reported by Ibn Abaas r.a. or Abdul ibn Amr r.a. in Bukhari and Muslim about the prophet SAW said : ”No prolem! Continue the rites” are after the Khutbah of explanation that the holy prophet did on the 10th day of Zil Hijjah. In that explanation he did order to follow the sequence. Then after hearing that, people started saying ”We did not know and we did slaughtering before pelting..”(Muslim) etc. As such since that was the first Hajj done under the shariah completion of rites, the holy prophet SAW told them that it was not a sin today and for today it was :”No problem”. But the khutbah was clear that we should follow the sequence. Today HAjis know of the sequence and the forgiveness of ”No problem” no more applicable.
The muslim riwayah clearly state that people that ignored the obligation of sequence and that is why they came hastily towards the prophet to ask the issue of their hajj.
و حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ خَشْرَمٍ أَخْبَرَنَا عِيسَى عَنْ ابْنِ جُرَيْجٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ ابْنَ شِهَابٍ يَقُولُ حَدَّثَنِي عِيسَى بْنُ طَلْحَةَ حَدَّثَنِي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَمْرِو بْنِ الْعَاصِ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بَيْنَا هُوَ يَخْطُبُ يَوْمَ النَّحْرِ فَقَامَ إِلَيْهِ رَجُلٌ فَقَالَ مَا كُنْتُ أَحْسِبُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَنَّ كَذَا وَكَذَا قَبْلَ كَذَا وَكَذَا ثُمَّ جَاءَ آخَرُ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ كُنْتُ أَحْسِبُ أَنَّ كَذَا قَبْلَ كَذَا وَكَذَا لِهَؤُلَاءِ الثَّلَاثِ قَالَ افْعَلْ وَلَا حَرَجَ
The question that arise is that why did not the holy prophet SAW told them to offer a dam on wrong sequence. The answer is that since it was the first hajj of Islam, then the dam would not be applicable. But furthermore, dam would be applicable.
This indication is more clear from the riwayah of Baihaqi whereby the holy prophet SAW said: ”Take the education of the rites from me, as i may not be here next year.”
وقال خذوا عنى مناسككم لعلى لا اراكم بعد عامى هذا
Furthermore, the holy prophet SAW clearly stated that he would only come out of ihram to shave the head when the animal would be slaughtered: Reported in Bukhari by hazrat Hafsah r.a. that she asked Rasouloullah SAW about why people already shaved their heads after their Umrahs and the holy prophet SAW did not become halaal. The holy prophet SAW said: ”Because I have put gel in my hair and brought animal(made niyat of Qiraan), then I would not be halaal until I slaughter the animal.”(Bukhari)
عَنْ حَفْصَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ أَنَّهَا قَالَتْ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ مَا شَأْنُ النَّاسِ حَلُّوا بِعُمْرَةٍ وَلَمْ تَحْلِلْ أَنْتَ مِنْ عُمْرَتِكَ قَالَ إِنِّي لَبَّدْتُ رَأْسِي وَقَلَّدْتُ هَدْيِي فَلَا أَحِلُّ حَتَّى أَنْحَرَ
In another riwayah, the holy prophet SAW said that ”Nothing haraam on me (in ihram) will become halaal only when the animal reached the point of slaughter.”(Bukhari)
جَابِرُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا أَنَّهُ حَجَّ مَعَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَوْمَ سَاقَ الْبُدْنَ مَعَهُ وَقَدْ أَهَلُّوا بِالْحَجِّ مُفْرَدًا فَقَالَ لَهُمْ أَحِلُّوا مِنْ إِحْرَامِكُمْ بِطَوَافِ الْبَيْتِ وَبَيْنَ الصَّفَا وَالْمَرْوَةِ وَقَصِّرُوا ثُمَّ أَقِيمُوا حَلَالًا حَتَّى إِذَا كَانَ يَوْمُ التَّرْوِيَةِ فَأَهِلُّوا بِالْحَجِّ وَاجْعَلُوا الَّتِي قَدِمْتُمْ بِهَا مُتْعَةً فَقَالُوا كَيْفَ نَجْعَلُهَا مُتْعَةً وَقَدْ سَمَّيْنَا الْحَجَّ فَقَالَ افْعَلُوا مَا أَمَرْتُكُمْ فَلَوْلَا أَنِّي سُقْتُ الْهَدْيَ لَفَعَلْتُ مِثْلَ الَّذِي أَمَرْتُكُمْ وَلَكِنْ لَا يَحِلُّ مِنِّي حَرَامٌ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ الْهَدْيُ مَحِلَّهُ فَفَعَلُوا
Remember that cutting hair in ihram is haraam. The holy prophet SAW explained clearly that he will not shave hair until his camels would be slaughtered. This is a clear proof that one should follow the sequence obligatorily. Also the holy prophet SAW used the same words as in the Holy Qur-aan:”Hatta yabloughal hadyou Mahillah.” OR ”Until the animal reached the point of slaughter”. Jusqu`a que l’offrande [l’animal à sacrifier] n’ait atteint son lieu d’immolation.
Thus supported by Quranic ayats, Ahadiths mentioned in the above paragraphs, including views of fuqahas sahabas and Tabi`een, we conclude that sequence of Pelting on the 10th Zil Hijjah, slaughtering and shaving is wajib. Yes Tawafe Ziyarat is not in the sequence and can be observed in between the time from Sehri 10th to Maghrib on 12th.
Know that when you have performed pelting, slaughtering and shaving, then everything becomes halaal except women. Women would be halaal only after tawaaf. This is clearly mentioned in Tirmizi:
عَنْ عَائِشَةَ قَالَتْ طَيَّبْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُحْرِمَ وَيَوْمَ النَّحْرِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَطُوفَ بِالْبَيْتِ بِطِيبٍ فِيهِ مِسْكٌ وَفِي الْبَاب عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى حَدِيثُ عَائِشَةَ حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ وَالْعَمَلُ عَلَى هَذَا عِنْدَ أَكْثَرِ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَغَيْرِهِمْ يَرَوْنَ أَنَّ الْمُحْرِمَ إِذَا رَمَى جَمْرَةَ الْعَقَبَةِ يَوْمَ النَّحْرِ وَذَبَحَ وَحَلَقَ أَوْ قَصَّرَ فَقَدْ حَلَّ لَهُ كُلُّ شَيْءٍ حَرُمَ عَلَيْهِ إِلَّا النِّسَاءَ.
3. Furthermore Hazrat Ibn Hajar r.a. said that there is hassan and marfoo` riwayat from Ibn Abaas r.a. in musannaf Ibn Abi Shaibah that said that any change in the sequence of hajj would imply a dam:
حدَّثَنَا سَلاَّمٌ ، عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ مُهَاجِرٍ ، عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ ، قَالَ : مَنْ قَدَّمَ شَيْئًا مِنْ حَجِّهِ ، أَوْ أَخَّرَهُ ، فَلْيُهْرِقْ لِذَلِكَ دَمًا.
4. There is a narration of Bukhari whereby Hazrat Ka`b Ibn `Ujrah r.a. was in Hudaybiyah when lies was overwhelming excessively on my head such that lies was falling on my face. The holy prophet SAW saw me and asked: ”Are the lies causing you trouble?”. I answered: ”Yes”. Then this ayah was revealed:
”Si l’un d’entre vous est malade ou souffre d’une affection de la tête (et doit se raser), qu’il se rachète alors par un Siyâm ou par une aumône ou par un sacrifice.”(2:196)
As such any change in the sequence of the rites would imply a dam as indicated by the holy Qur-aan.
Coming to the second part of your question:
Secondly know that shaving of hair for men or cutting hairs of women include most of the hair of the Haji. Cutting a few hair cannot satisfy that rite. The proof is that whenever the shaving of hair was done by the Holy prophet SAW or by sahabas, it is mentioned that they shaved their whole head:
Qur-aan sourah 48, verse 27:
vous entrerez dans la Mosquée Sacrée si Allah veut, en toute sécurité, ayant rasé vos têtes ou coupé vos cheveux, sans aucune crainte.
Sourah Baqarah, verse 196, Allah Ta`ala said:
Si vous en êtes empêchés, alors faites un sacrifice qui vous soit facile. Et ne rasez pas vos têtes avant que l’offrande [l’animal à sacrifier] n’ait atteint son lieu d’immolation.
The holy prophet SAW himself is reported to have shaved his whole head during the the last hajj and before that also. The hadith of Bukhari did not mentioned hair, but the whole head:
أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ حَلَقَ رَأْسَهُ فِي حَجَّةِ الْوَدَاعِ
And know that the holy prophet SAW prohibited to shave part of the head and leave hair on the other part of the head(reported in Bukhari):
رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَنْهَى عَنْ الْقَزَعِ
Thus one should follow the prophet SAW and shave one`s whole head. Permissible to cut hair if men`s hair are long enough- at least 3cms long. Then cut 2cms from that.
Under the same principle, the ladies should open their hairs and cut 2 cms from most of the hair. It is haraam for ladies to shave their heads. The holy prophet SAW said: ”Women should not shave. They only have to slightly cut their hairs.”(Abu Dawood)
قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَيْسَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ حَلْقٌ إِنَّمَا عَلَى النِّسَاءِ التَّقْصِيرُ
Again the whole hair lot is refered to, not a few hair.
Wallahou A`lam bissawaab.