QAZA OF SALAAH AND ROZA:
First of all, know that it is wajib to replace any obligatory `ibaadah when missed EXCEPT for salaah during menses. The proof of qazas are found in the Qur-aan and sunnah:Allah Ta`ala says: ‘’However, should any one of you be sick or on a journey, then he should fast a number of other days(in replacement).’’(2:184)
The term qaza is Arabic whereby it means to replace what is missed. Over here clearly Allah Ta`ala orders us to replace missed fasts. Hence those who are healthy or have hope to be healthy should replace their fasts later on. Those ladies and girls that missed their fasts during menses or post natal bleeding should absolutely replace their fasts later on. Hazrat Aisah r.a. says that we were ordered to replace our missed fasts due to menses, but not salaah.’’(Muslim) Although qaza of salaah do exist, but due to monthly menses, we were exempted from replacing salaah and we had only to replace fasts missed.
عَنْ مُعَاذَةَ قَالَتْسَأَلْتُ عَائِشَةَ فَقُلْتُ مَا بَالُ الْحَائِضِ تَقْضِي الصَّوْمَ وَلَا تَقْضِي الصَّلَاةَ فَقَالَتْ أَحَرُورِيَّةٌ أَنْتِ قُلْتُ لَسْتُ بِحَرُورِيَّةٍ وَلَكِنِّي أَسْأَلُ قَالَتْ كَانَ يُصِيبُنَا ذَلِكَ فَنُؤْمَرُ بِقَضَاءِ الصَّوْمِ وَلَا نُؤْمَرُ بِقَضَاءِ الصَّلَاةِمسلم
Know that fidyah is only applicable to such sick patient that have no hope to be fit enough to replace their fasts. The fidyah is best given in money form since it is more beneficial for poor people. So the Fidyah of one fast is the same value of Sadaqatul Fitr. The fidyah should be given to such a poor muslim that is so poor that he can take Zakaat. Such a poor person should not have nisaab in his possession.
The fidyah of a whole Ramadhaan is 30 Sadaqatul Fitr(30 * Sadaqatul Fitr). The fidyah of one month may be given wholly and also can be given to one person only. And it can be given to such sick poor persons that are not fasting. In case that someone cannot fast and is so poor that he cannot pay Fidyah, then the person need only to do istighfaar only.(Astaghfirullah Astaghfirullah).
In case that a person is leaving properties and has fidyah amount due, then important that he makes will that his fidyah be paid. The fidyah will would be limited to only one third of the wealth, not more than that. And try to do qaza of your Ramadhaan fasts before fasting nafils. Know that salaah is prescribed in its prescribed time. Leaving salaah after its proper time is a major sin and is punishable. One should do sincere tawbah in such a case. And remember that the completion of tawbah is to replace missed salaahs. The proof of replacing missed salaahs is found in ahadiths. It is reported in Nassai that the beloved prophet Swalallahou `Alaihi Wasallam missed 4 salaahs and hence replaced them at night. This is the first proof that if salaahs are missed, then they should be replaced:
أَخْبَرَنَا هَنَّادٌ عَنْ هُشَيْمٍ عَنْ أَبِي الزُّبَيْرِ عَنْ نَافِعِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عُبَيْدَةَ قَالَ قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِإِنَّ الْمُشْرِكِينَ شَغَلُوا النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَنْ أَرْبَعِ صَلَوَاتٍ يَوْمَ الْخَنْدَقِ فَأَمَرَ بِلَالًا فَأَذَّنَ ثُمَّ أَقَامَ فَصَلَّى الظُّهْرَ ثُمَّ أَقَامَ فَصَلَّى الْعَصْرَ ثُمَّ أَقَامَ فَصَلَّى الْمَغْرِبَ ثُمَّ أَقَامَ فَصَلَّى الْعِشَاءَ
Hazrat Abdullah r.a. says: ‘’The mushriks preoccupied the beloved prophet SAW that he missed 4 salaahs on the day of khandaq. He ordered Bilaal(at night) to give azaan and iqaamah and he read Zohr, then iqaamah and he read Assr, and then iqaamah and read maghrib and then finally iqaamah and read Esha.’’(Nassai) Furthermore the beloved prophet SAW replaced Fajr salaah when he missed it during a tiresome travelling(Bukhari):
قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَبَضَ أَرْوَاحَكُمْ حِينَ شَاءَ وَرَدَّهَا عَلَيْكُمْ حِينَ شَاءَ يَا بِلَالُ قُمْ فَأَذِّنْ بِالنَّاسِ بِالصَّلَاةِ فَتَوَضَّأَ فَلَمَّا ارْتَفَعَتْ الشَّمْسُ وَابْيَاضَّتْ قَامَ فَصَلَّىبخاري
In this hadith of Bukhari, it is mentioned clearly that the beloved prophet SAW waited that the sun becomes white and shiny before doing the qaza. This entails the prohibition to do any salaah before about 15 minutes from sunrise. Furthermore, the beloved prophet SAW said that whenever one misses salaah, then he should replace it when he recalls it(Muslim):
عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ قَالَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِذَا رَقَدَ أَحَدُكُمْ عَنْ الصَّلَاةِ أَوْ غَفَلَ عَنْهَا فَلْيُصَلِّهَا إِذَا ذَكَرَهَا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ يَقُولُ أَقِمْ الصَّلَاةَ لِذِكْرَىمسلم
These ahadiths brings the concept of qaza and Qaza Umri. That is, if one misses salaahs during his life, then he should do tawbah and replace all the missed salaahs. Only one detail for those who have less than six salaahs missed on their account: They should always replace their missed salaahs in order. If not done in order purposely, then it should be redone in order.But those who have six salaahs or more missed on their account, then they may replace their salaahs as they wish even without order.
Since salaahs need intention, then separate intentions should be made for each salaah. Easiest is to formulate these intentions: ‘’I intend replace my last Fajr that I missed during my life, I intend replace my last Zohr,etc.’’ This intention formula does not necessitate a table. One may stop replacing when one`s heart feels that one has replaced all missed salaahs. Sunnahs needs only istighfaar and no qaza umri for sunnahs. Yes, witr should be replaced. In case that a person could not replace all his salaah during his lifetime, then he should make a will to give on his side the amount of fidyah for his salaahs. One salaah`s fidyah is the amount of the actual saqatul fitr. Fuqaha have prescribed replacement of salaah during lifetime and no fidyah applied for salaah. But one may do a will to that effect if ever death comes, then give from my side. This will would be subject to a limit of a maximum of one third of the estate he left. If he left little, then it is up to the inheritors to apply the will or leave it to one third of the estate.
Finally know that Qaza salaah have a priority over nafils. Hence one should rather do qaza umri than performing over above nafils.
Note: One should do all sunnah muakkadahs. One is recommended to do nafils like tahajud, ishraaq, salaatut-tasbeeh, chaast, ghair muakkadahs and awabin. And know that it is important sunnah to read tahiyatul masjid at least once in a day according to ahnaf.(Shami)But besides these nafils, one should involve in qazas of farzs and witr. One may do qazas after assr until 20 minutes before sunset. And also do qazas between sehri and before sunrise. But makrooh to read at sunrise until 15 minutes after that.